This working paper is a written version of an oral presentation made originally at a seminar jointly organised by the Pathfinder Foundation and Point Pedro Institute of Development in Colombo on June 05, 2009 on the revival of the Northern Economy and subsequently at the Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO) on July 27, 2009. This working paper argues the case for a comprehensive policy framework for the revival of the economy of the conflict-affected region, viz. the Eastern and Northern Provinces, in Sri Lanka. In lieu of going into sectoral specificities, this policy paper outlines a broad policy framework enshrined on economic freedom, transparent and accountable politico-economic governance structure, knowledge economy, and fiscal autonomy for the conflict-affected provinces and beyond.
Sri Lanka Air Force bombed the ‘Voice of Tigers’ (VOT) radio station in the outskirts of Kilinochchi town on November 26, 2007, the day prior to the annual heroes’ day speech by the leader of the LTTE. The UNESCO condemned this attack on the ground that it was a civilian target and therefore against International Humanitarian Laws governing armed conflicts. Drawing parallels from similar attacks on enemy communication and propaganda facilities in other conflicts around the world this paper argues that the aerial attack on the VOT was legitimate under International Humanitarian Laws.
This is an anthology of three articles on the civil war and economy in Sri Lanka. Two articles focus on the national economy during the 2000-2007 period, while the third one focuses on the feasibility of a separate economy in the Eastern and Northern Provinces of Sri Lanka.
This working paper is an anthology of short opinion pieces on the LTTE’s Interim Self-Governing Authority (ISGA) Proposal, air power of the LTTE and its implications for conflict resolution and Norwegian & British roles in conflict resolution in Sri Lanka.
This is a rejoinder to an article written by Kristian Stokke and published in the TamilNet in February 2006 and subsequently in the Third World Quarterly (TWQ) in September 2006 which is euphorically titled “Building the Tamil Eelam State: Emerging State Institutions and Forms of Governance in LTTE-controlled Areas in Sri Lanka”. This author’s critique of Kristian Stokke’s article is two fold: one is on the process of undertaking research for his article and the second is on glaring factual inaccuracies on which his article is tenuously based. This paper presents statistical, factual and anecdotal evidence to refute the claims made by Kristian Stokke that the LTTE is a liberation movement with mass support, performing state functions in areas under its control. There is also a postscript replying to Kristian Stokke’s response to my rejoinder published in the TWQ in September 2007, and detailing the ordeal encountered by this author in getting the rejoinder published in the TWQ.
This working paper critically appraises the modality/process/mechanism of the government budget formulation, enactment, implementation and monitoring & auditing in Sri Lanka. It tends to address the following questions: (i) What is a government budget? (ii) What are the laws governing the budget (national, provincial & local)? (iii) How is it prepared, enacted, implemented, and monitored & audited? (iv) What are the best practices in budget formulation, enactment, implementation and monitoring & auditing internationally? (v) How can the government improve the accountability and transparency of the budget? (vi) What could be done to improve the technical capacity of people’s representatives in parliament to effectively and efficiently contribute to budget debates?
This is an exploratory study on the extent and causes of informal economy in the conflict region of Sri Lanka. The extent of informal economy in monetary terms in the conflict region is estimated to be roughly 30% of the Provincial Gross Domestic Product of the North&East Province in 2004. Lack of government administration, law enforcement and judicial services, and economic sanctions are identified as the primary causes of informal economy in the conflict region. It is argued that informal economy in conflict-affected countries/regions is transnational by nature and therefore policies to combat the informal economy needs international cooperation
This paper assesses poverty in the conflict-affected North&East Province of Sri Lanka using hitherto unavailable data due to the protracted civil war. Past four years of ceasefire has generated data that enabled the materialisation of this working paper. The main arguments of this paper are that (a) on balance of evidence the conflict-affected North&East is the most deprived Province in Sri Lanka in terms of income/consumption & human poverty, income & infrastructural inequality, and vulnerability, and (b) restoration of good governance is imperative for combating poverty in the conflict-affected region of Sri Lanka.
The Tsunami that struck several Asia countries in December 2004 has left untold misery among the coastal population of Sri Lanka. Compounding this misery wrought by nature the coastal population of Sri Lanka are faced with pillage by fellow humans who have purportedly come to their rescue, resettlement, and rehabilitation. This study documents specific types and cases of such pillage of impoverished communities in the North & East Province of Sri Lanka. The overall argument of this paper is that the nature of corruption in relief, rehabilitation, and reconstruction aid disbursements in the North&East is different from that of the South and West, and therefore extra precautions and innovative modalities have to be devised in order to minimise leakages and pilferages. In the South and West corruption is due to personal greed, whereas in the North&East it is by and large institutionalised and monopolised.